Since no grammatical treatment of Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache is as yet available, it is necessary to preface the linguistic notes with a brief grammatical outline. Unless otherwise stated, the remarks following apply equally to both languages. The examples quoted are, for the most part, from Chiricahua Apache. Mescalero examples are used only when it is necessary to illustrate a point of difference between the two languages.
Chiricahua and Mescalero words may be divided into four principal form classes: pronouns, nouns, verbs, and particles. The criteria for this division are as follows: the structure of the word, its inflection, the nature of its prefixes, and its function in the sentence.
Pronouns are generally composed either of a single free stem or of a bound stem plus an enclitic. The pronominal stem is never inflected and, except for the distributive prefix daa-, takes, takes no prefixes.
Nouns fall into three major groups: the basic or "primitive" nouns, noun compounds, and nouns formed from verbs. Nouns of the first classification are composed of a theme [a stem or a stem plus prefix] which may, in some cases, be inflected for the possessive. Noun compounds vary considerably in complexity from simple combinations of two noun stems to complex constructions involving words of two or more form classes. Nouns formed from verbs may consist either of an unmodified verb functioning as a noun or of a verb form plus relative enclitic. Finally, nouns are characterized by the fact that they may take only one set of prefixes, those denoting the possessive pronoun.
Verbs have a far more complex structure. Verb themes have essentially the same construction as noun themes but differ from the latter in two important respects: first, the verb theme is always a bound morpheme whereas some nouns themes may be free forms, and, secondly, the verb theme, with few exceptions, is inflected for mode and aspect. The verb also differs from the noun in the number and variety of prefixes which may be included in its structure. Two classes of verb prefix, the derivational and paradigmatic prefixes, do not occur with nouns at all, and a third class, the pronominal objects, have a different meaning when combined with noun themes.
The fourth form class, the particle, includes a variety of forms. Some particles have a structure similar to that of the noun, others resemble verb forms. All particles, however, have this characteristic in common: their essential structure is not variable. Particles function as adverbs, numerals, conjunctions, and occasionally as adjectives.
It is clear from what has been said that Apache words are built up of two principal classes of glosseme: prefixes and themes. Prefixes may be classed as possessive and objective pronouns, used with either nouns or verbs; and as derivational and paradigmatic prefixes, which are combined only with verb themes. Themes are structurally of two types. Those composed of a stem alone, and those composed of a prefix plus stem. The latter type occurs only in nouns and verbs; the former in all form classes.
In addition to these two classes of glosseme, however, there is another less important class, the proclitics and enclitics. Proclitics may be distinguished from prefixes by the fact that they always occur before any prefix also included in a word, and because they may occur with words of any form class whereas prefixes are generally confined to words of a single form class. Enclitics always follow the stem, and, like the proclitics, may occur in words of any form class. Proclitics function as adverbial or adjectival modifiers, and enclitics as postpositions, relatives, and tense-modal indicators.
Pronouns are of two kinds: the independent personal pronouns and the demonstrative, interrogative, and indefinite pronouns. Independent personal pronouns are composed either of a single free stem, monosyllabic in the singular and disyllabic in the dual, or of a stem plus the distributive prefix daa-. The forms are identical in both languages.
|3||b7||g0b7||daab7 or daag0b7|
As may be seen from the above table, four persons are recognized in the singular. The 3a person is used when it is necessary to distinguish between two third persons or to refer to individuals with whom a respect relationship is maintained (See Morris Edward Opler, "Chiricahua Apache Social Organization" in F. Eggan [ed.], Social Anthropology of North American Tribes (Chicago, 1937), pp. 214 et seq.). In the dual, there are but two forms, one denoting either the first or the second person, and the other the third person. The third person dual is, however, rarely used; most often the singular form is employed everywhere, number being inferred from the context.
It should also be pointed out that the distinction between dual and distributive is not solely a distinction of number. As a matter of fact, the dual is frequently employed in contexts in which it is obvious that a greater number than two are being referred to. When the distributive is used, there is not only the denotation of a plural but also the implication that every individual of the group participates in the action.
The pronouns are not inflected; their syntactic function may be indicated by their position in the sentence or may be inferred from the context.
Demonstrative pronouns are composed of a bound stem plus an enclitic. There are eight principal demonstrative stems: 88- 'here [position nearest the speaker]'; dz22- 'here'; 'a- [or 'aa-] 'there'; gha- [ghah-] 'there, yonder'; ko- 'hereabout, thereabout'; d7- 'this'; 'a- 'that' [related to '1-, 'aa- preceding?]; and '1gh1- ['1gh1-] 'that yonder' [related to gha- preceding?]. The first five refer to places, the last three to persons or things. The former are usually found in combination with one of the following postpositions: -ee 'at, in, on'; -sh9 'from'; -zh8 'to'; and -y1, a generalized postposition functioning to link the verb with the indirect object. The latter three demonstrative stems are always combined either with the relative enclitic -7 referring to things, actions, and collectivities or the corresponding relative -] referring to persons. The following two tables summarize the more frequently occurring demonstratives.
|ko-||ko-sh9||ko-y1 or ko'y1|
The interrogative and indefinite pronouns are expressed by identical forms, a context being required to distinguish them. Four of the stems, ha'-, h1-, haa-, and haad-, occur only with enclitics; the fifth, 'iy1a- [also heard y1a] may occur alone. Examples:
ha'-sh9 gah4e n1y7]jaa from somewhere they had brought back coffee.
ha'-y1-hee 'i[yaa[di[ they went away somewhere [-hee dubitative enclitic].
ha'-y1-hee 'ija[gho where has he gone?
doo-h1-]- y4g0s8-da no one knows about them [doo-...-da negative; y4g0s8 they know about them].
h1-] bik'ehgodaannd1] whoever is in charge of our lives.
doo-ha-d3-daa'9-da-7 that which they had never seen before [doo...da negative, -d3 at that time, daa'9 they see it, -7 relative enclitic].
doo-h1-sh9-[a'j0l1h1t'4-da it was impossible to get one from anywhere [h1-sh9 from anywhere].
d11-h1- zh8 always [literally: to just any time].
haa-ee ts4naagh1n1 where is there a rolling stone?
d1-haa-ee 'i[ya[ts44[ee wherever you see one another.
haad-] hee[ shaan1yin'3 who has taken the pack from me?
d11-haad-] k'eeshnndii] anyone whom one hates.
haad-7 nk'a'go what are your arrows?
d11-haad-7 daajiy37 anything that they eat.
'iy1a-sh9 yiy3sh8 what does he eat? [-sh8 dubitative enclitic].
'iy1a '1t'47 whatever it was.
'iy1a 'ist'enn7'887 something that I have left over there.
'iy1a ]nd7 what did you say?
The nouns may be divided into the following groups: basic nouns, nouns with constant possessor, thematic nouns, verbal abstracts, and compound nouns.
Basic nouns are those composed of a single free theme: '1 'fog'; '44' 'coat'; k'os 'cloud'; t0 'water'; k'aa 'arrow'.
Included in this class are certain nouns composed of a stem plus a suffix which cannot be isolated: taazhe 'chicken'; ta[4 'cedar'; g3he 'supernaturals of the mountains' k4hee 'stick [or moccasin] game'.
When basic nouns are preceded by a possessive pronoun prefix, they sometimes alter in form. Such alternations are as follows: an initial voiceless spirant may become voiced, a final voiceless spirant may become voiced, final consonants other than voiceless spirants may change, and a vocalic suffix may be added. Examples: '44' 'coat', bi-4d-e 'his coat' [bi- 'his']; t'1 'feather', bi-t'a' 'his feather'; k'aa 'arrow', bik'a' 'his arrow'; b44sh 'knife', bib4zhe 'his knife; hee[ 'pack', bigh44[ 'his pack'; [i'smoke', bi-lid-e 'his smoke'.
Nouns with constant possessor are composed of a single bound stem [generally monosyllabic but also disyllabic] plus a possessive pronoun prefix. Nouns of this classification fall into three sub-groups.
a. Body part nouns: shi-tsii 'my head' [shi- 'my']; shi-zh1de 'my leg'; shi-kee 'my foot'; shi-nd1a 'my eye'. With nouns of this group it is possible to distinguish between alienable and inalienable possession. Thus, for example, shi-tsii 'my head' refers to the head which is a part of my body but shi-'i-tsii 'my head' ['i- indefinite possessor] refers to a head originally a part of someone's body but now in my possession.
b. Kinship terms: shi-m1 'my mother'; shi-taa 'my father'; shi-k'is 'my sibling of same sex'; shi-b44zhe 'my stepfather'.
c. Nouns denoting locality [the independent postpositions]: bi-ghe' 'its inside, inside of it'; bi-ch'88 'toward it'; bi-ch'3 'away from it'; bi-k1 'its top, surface; on top of it'.
In compounds, nouns with constant possessor sometimes occur without the prefix: tsii-t'1 'top of the head' [tsii- 'head, -t'1 'top']; d1-ghe' 'region of the throat' [d1- 'chin' , found only in compounds; ghe' 'inside']; d1-ghaa 'beard' [-ghaa 'hair']. Some compounds of this sort, however, also require a constant possessor: shi- ndii-ts'in 'my malar bones' [ndii- 'face', -ts'in 'bone']; shi- nd1-ts'in 'my supraorbitals' [nd1- 'eye'. Note that the form of the word for eye is different when it occurs outside the compound; cf. shi- nd1a 'my eye'].
Thematic nouns are composed of a prefix plus a stem. The prefix cannot be isolated from the stem in meaning. Examples: di-b4h4 'sheep'; y1-ti 'talk, conversation; n1-t'oh 'tobacco'; go- t1l 'ceremony'; koo-gh2 [also goo-gh2] 'tipi', 'wickiup, home'; koo-ta [also go-ta] 'an encampment'. These nouns do not alter their forms in the possessive: shi-dib4h4 'my sheep'; shi-koogh2 'my home'; shi-n1t'oh 'my tobacco'.
Some verbal abstracts are verb forms which function as nouns; others are verb forms plus a relative enclitic. Examples: naat'1 'chief, leader; he leads, directs'; '4nt'9 'witch; he is a witch'; go[ga 'plain, clearing; place is white'; digh8 'shaman, ceremony, spiritual power; it is holy'; shi[naa'aash 'my spouse; he [or she] lives with me'; [ib1-] 'a class of supernaturals' [lib1 'he is gray', -] relative]; ha'dii'1-] 'singer' [ha'dii'1 'he customarily sings']. Some nouns of this class are formed by adding a postposition to a verb form: ha'ii'1h-y1 'east' [ha'ii'1 'the sun customarily moves upward'; -y1 'place where'; -h- ?]; nandi'1h-y1 'south' [nandi'1'the sun customarily starts to turn'].
Noun compounds are very common in both languages and occur in a wide variety of forms. In this brief discussion, only a few of the more frequently occurring types can be described.
a. Noun plus noun: tsii-t'1 'top of the head' [tsii- 'head', -ts'1 'top], d11-ghaa 'beard' [d1- 'chin', -ghaa 'hair'], [9-ghe' 'underground' [[9- 'ground', -ghe' 'inside'], t0-zis 'water bag' [t0 'water', -zis 'bag'], b44shtsaa 'bucket' [b44sh 'metal', ts'aa 'basket'], t[aa-kaa[ 'skirt' [t[aa- 'buttocks', -ka[ 'leather'].
b. Noun plus verb: ts8-skaa 'place name' [ts8 'wood', -skaa > sikaa 'a clump [e.g. of trees] lie'], t0-sik3 'lake' [t0 water', sik3 something in a container lies'], t0-]l9 'river' l9 'it flows'], ts9-nt['iz 'species hard wood' [nt['iz 'it is hard'].
c.Noun plus verb plus relative enclitic. In compounds of this type, three relative enclitics occur: -7 and -] which have been discussed before [see 2] and -4, an archaic relative. Compounds employing -4 frequently involve archaic forms of the verb as well. t0-noogay-4 'Dripping Springs [a place name]' [t0 'water', noogay-, an archaic form of the verb nooga 'whiteness moves downward], [9ghe'-naa'indil-4 'gopher' [[9gh4' underground', naa'indil 'he scatters it about'], mai-dat['izh-4 'fox' [mai 'coyote', dat['izh 'it is blue, gray'], ts4-nteel-7 'flat rock' [ts4 'rock', nteel 'it is flat'], '7saa-dihnd7-7 'drum' ['7saa 'pot', dihnd7 'a noise is made'], naada-haas'1-7 'a sacred mountain' [naada 'mescal', haas'1 'it extends upward'], nd4-naag0][t'4] [nd4 'person', naag0][t'4 'he is bad'].
Other and more complex compounds exist in addition to those described above. Numerous examples of these are analyzed in the notes.
Only one set of prefixes may be combined with the noun. These are the
possessive pronoun prefixes.
It is clear that these forms differ in only two respects from the independent personal pronouns [see part 2, above]: the possessive prefixes are all bound forms whereas the independent pronouns are free morphemes, and the possessive prefixes have neutral tone whereas the independent pronouns have inherent tone. In addition, one of the persons recognized in the possessive series, the indefinite third person, does not occur independently. This prefix is used either of an unknown third person possessor or where it is not necessary to emphasize the possessor.
The variation between nahi- and nah- in the first and second persons dual and distributive cannot be explained. As indicated, the dual third person is generally expressed by the third person singular prefix bi-. In some cases, however, a separate dual prefix is found, gobi-.
The verb may be divided into two parts: the theme, which is composed either of a classifier plus stem or of a thematic prefix plus classifier plus stem; and the prefix complex.
The thematic prefixes do not vary in form but remain the same in all the forms of the verb. Stems, however, are inflected for mode and aspect.
Voice distinctions are made primarily by change of classifier, a prefixed element appearing just before the initial consonant of the stem. Four such classifiers are discernible: zero, -[-, -d- , and -l-.
Verbs with zero classifiers may be neuter intransitive, neuter transitive, active intransitive or active transitive. Thus, si'3 'a round object has position' [si-perfective prefix, -'3 neuter intr. stem], ya'9 'he sees it' [ya- > yi- third person object plus the progressive mode prefix, -'9 neuter tr. stem], 'idi'aa 'a round object starts to move' ['i- deictic prefix, di- inceptive, -'aa imperfective stem, act. intr.], yidi'aa 'he starts to carry a round object' [yi- third person object, di- inceptive, -'aa imperfective stem, act. tr.] all have the zero classifier.
Some zero class intransitives. may be transitivized by the addition of the
-[- classifier. Compare:
si'3 a round object has position' with
s7['3 'I have a round object in position'
[s7- perfective first person]; s7t9 'I lie' with s7[t9 'I have an animate object in position'; ntee
'he lies down' [n- terminative prefix, -tee imperfective stem, act. intr.]
with nai[tee 'he carries a living object
about' [nai- > naa- 'about' plus yi- third person object, -[-tee imperfective stem, act. tr.]; hib44zh 'it boils [hi- peg prefix, -b44zh imperfective stem, act. intr.] with yi[b44zh 'he boils it' [yi- third person object, -
imperfective stem, act. tr.].
This, however, is not true in all cases. Some transitives formed from
intransitives do not add the -[- classifier
but retain the zero classifier. Compare: idi'aa 'a round object begins to
move' with yidi'aa 'he starts to carry a round object'; sit3 'a long slender object has position' [-t3 neuter intr. stem] with ny7]t3 'he has put a long slender object down'
[n- 'down', yi- third person object, n-
perfective, -t3 perfective stem, act. tr.].
Furthermore, there are a number of intransitive verbs with -
All passive verbs have either the
-d- or the -l-
classifier. Those derived from zero class transitives employ the former,
and those derived from -[- class transitives
employ the latter.
In Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache, however, the -d- classifier has been lost
as such. Its presence can only be detected in verbs whose stems begin with
'-, nd-, y-, gh-, z-, zh-, or l-. In these verbs,
the -d- has combined with the initial stem consonant as follows:
|-d- classifier plus:||'-||>||t'-|
The -l- classifier, on the other hand, has become -[- in Chiricahua and Mescalero. Consequently, most passives in these languages would be formally indistinguishable from zero and - [- class verbs were it not for the fact that other alternations characterize them. One is that the passive form does not include the third person pronoun object required in all third persons of transitive verbs. Another is that all -d- and -l- class verbs take the same subject pronoun series in the perfective paradigm that they take in the other paradigms whereas zero and -[- class verbs have a distinctive set of subject pronouns in the perfective paradigm.
The classifiers and their functions may, then, be summarized as
The verb stem is generally composed either of a consonant plus vowel or of a consonant plus vowel plus consonant. Variations in the final consonant and in the quality, pitch accent, and length of the stem vowel indicate differences in mode and aspect. Five modes are distinguished: the imperfective, perfective, progressive, iterative, and optative. In addition, four aspects may be distinguished: the momentaneous, continuative, repetitive, and semelfactive. No stem, however, has a distinct form for each of these modes and aspects. In the first place, most stems are conjugated only for the five modes and, of those that are conjugated for aspect, few distinguish between more then two aspectival forms. Secondly, many verbs have the same stem form in each conjugation. In general, then, the number of stem forms for any given verb rarely exceeds eight.
The stem variations are highly irregular and it will be impossible to list
here all of the possible variations. A few examples will suffice to illustrate
the commoner types. In the following examples, the stems are listed in this
order: imperfective, perfective, progressive, iterative, and optative. Where
variant forms for aspect are found, these are marked.
|-'ah||-'ah||-'ah||- 'ah||-'ah||'to butcher' [-|
|-t'ee||-t'ee||-t'ee[||-t'ee||- t'ee||'to handle a board-like object' [-|
|-'aa||-'1||-'11[||-'1||-'a||'a noise is heard'[zero class, act. intr.]|
|-k1 [mom.], -ka [cont.]||-ka||-ka[||- ka||-k1||'several move' [zero class, act. intr.]|
|-ghee [mom.],-gho [cont.]||-gho||- gho[||-gho||- ghe||'to move quickly, to run' [-[- class, act. intr.]|
|-l4||-l1||-l44[||-l4||-l4 [mom.], -la'[cont.]||'to handle a rope-like object' [zero class, act. tr.]|
|-ch88||-ch22||-ch88[||-ch88||-ch88||"to defecate' [zero class, act. tr.]|
|-t['0||- t['=||- t['0[||- t['0||- t['0||'to tie, bind' [zero class, act. tr.]|
|-'aa [mom.], -'1 [cont.]||-3||'11[||-'1||-'aa||'to handle a round object' [zero class, act. tr.]|
|-gh4||- gh9||- gh44[||- gh4||- gh4||'to kill one' [-[- class, act. tr.]|
|-z4||- z3||- z44[||- z4||- za'||'a movement of people takes place' [zero class, act. intr.]|
|-ghee [mom.], -gh4 [cont.]||-gh ||gh44[||-gh4||-ghee||'to carry a burden' [zero class, act. tr.]|
|-b88 [mom.], -b8' [cont.]||-b3||b99[||-b9||-b9||'to win a game' [-[-class, act. tr.]|
|-ta[||-ta[||-ta[||-ta[||-ta[||'to burst, explode' [-[- class, act. intr.]|
|-'o[||-'eel||-'o[||-'o[||-'o[||'to spread out' [-[- class, act. tr.]|
|-dees||-deez||-dis||-dis||-dees||'to singe' [- [- class, act. tr.]|
|-'eesh||-eezh||-'ish||-'ish||-'eesh||'to string beads'[zero class, act. tr.]|
|-baa[||-baal||-ba[||-ba[||-baa[||'to hang suspended' [zero class, act. intr.]|
|-b22s||- b33z||-b2s||-b2s||-b22s||'to become round' [zero class, act. intr.]|
|-aash||- '11zh||-'ash||- 'ash||-'aash||'two move' [zero class, act. intr.]|
|-'ee[||- '44l||-'o[||-'o[||-'ee[||'two move' [zero class, act. intr.]|
|-'44s||-'eez||-'is||-'is||-'44s||'to step about' [-[- class, act. intr.]|
|-k'ash [mom.], -k'ash [cont.]||-k'aazh[mom.], -k'ash [cont.]||k'ash||-k'ash||-k'aash [mom.], -k'ash [cont.]||'to sharpen' [zero class, act. tr.]|
|-'88[||-'88[||-'99[||-'99[||-'99[||'to copulate' [zero class, act. tr.]|
The prefix complex of the verb includes three types of prefix: derivational prefixes, object pronoun prefixes, and paradigmatic prefixes. These occur in the following order:
1. Derivational prefixes. Only a few derivational prefixes occur in this position. Most of them are found in position 3.
2. Object pronouns when they are followed by postpositions.
3. Derivational prefixes including the postpositions. The latter precede all other prefixes except those occurring in position 1.
4. The paradigmatic prefix for the iterative mode.
5. The distributive prefix daa-. This may refer either to the subject or the object pronoun. The reference is made explicit by the context.
6. Object pronouns when functioning as direct objects.
7. The deictic prefixes: ji- '3a person subject', go- 'place subject', and 'i- 'indefinite subject'.
8. Two or three derivational prefixes occur in this position. These are rather generalized in meaning and contrast sharply with the derivational prefixes of positions 1 and 3.
9. The paradigmatic prefix for the future tense. This is always followed by the prefix for the progressive mode.
10. Modal prefixes for the perfective, progressive, and optative modes. The so-called peg element [see number 13] also occurs in this position.
11. Subject pronoun prefixes.
12. The classifier followed by the stem. Thematic prefixes, when present, occur in position 3.
Derivational prefixes, as the name implies, add a measure of concrete significance to the theme. They differ from thematic prefixes in that they are not indissolubly a part of the theme but may be found with a variety of themes. There are probably as many derivational prefixes and prefix combinations as there are stems. To illustrate their use, let us take the theme -'aa, - '3, -'11[, -'1, -'aa 'to handle a round object' [zero class, act. tr.] and see the variety of meanings obtainable by altering its derivational prefixes.
0-aa-ni-... 'to give a round object to someone' [0 'any object pronoun', aa- 'to', ni- 'completive']
'ah-... 'to put a round object into [e.g., a hole]' ['ah- 'in, into]
dah-... 'to put a round object up' [dah- 'up, on top']
di-... 'to begin to carry a round object' [di- inceptive]
naa-... 'to carry a round object about' [naa- 'about, here and there']
n1-di-... 'to pick up a round object' [n1-di- 'upward']
n1-ni-... 'to bring a round object back' [n1- 'back', ni- completive]
ni-ni-... 'to put a round object down' [ni- 'down', ni- completive]
haa-... 'to take a round object out' [ha- 'out']
ts4-... 'to put a round object in the fire' [ts4- 'in the fire']
Though the derivational prefixes are not conjugated, they do have some relational significance. Thus, certain derivational prefixes require the conjunct form of the imperfective paradigm, and others the disjunct form [see number 18]. Similarly, the derivational prefixes seem to determine, in part at least, which of the three perfective paradigms the verb is to employ. Thus, for example, the prefix di- 'inceptive' causes the verb to which it is attached to take the si- perfective whereas the prefix di- employed with certain themes referring to speaking or making a noise requires the hi- perfective [see 14]. Finally, the question of aspect seems definitely bound up with the derivational prefixes. The di- 'inceptive' always requires the momentaneous aspect of the verb (e. g., yidi'aa 'he starts to carry a round object'; -'aa mom. imperfective stem] and the prefix naa- 'about' the continuative aspect [e. g., nai'1 'he carries a round object about'; - 1 cont. imperfective stem].
The object pronoun prefixes are as follows:
The reflexive pronoun is '1- or '1d-, the former preceding a consonant, the latter a vowel. The reciprocal prefix is 'i[-.
The two third person prefixes are distinguished as follows. The third person object is ordinarily indicated by zero when the subject is other than third person, and by yi- when the subject is also third person. Some verbs, however, require the third person to be expressed in all forms; in these, the prefix bi- is employed when the subject is other than third person.
When any of the prefixes are followed by a vocalic suffix, they lose their vowels. The 3a prefix, under such circumstances, becomes k-.
There are two series of subjective pronouns, as follows:
|high vowel-||7-||high nasal vowel-||7-|
|Du. 1||long vowel[d]-||long vowel[d]-||long nasal vowel[d]-||long nasal vowel[d]-|
Series [b] is employed in the perfective mode of all but -d- and -l- class verbs, and series [a] in all other modes and in the perfective mode of - d- and -l- class verbs. Of the two forms for the second person singular, n- is used only in the disjunct paradigm of the imperfective mode [see number 13]. In all other paradigms the second person is indicated by a high tone on the vowel of the preceding prefix [a high tone and nasalization in Mescalero].
As may be seen from the table, the mark of the first person dual is a lengthening and low tone on the vowel of the preceding prefix followed by the consonant -d-. This consonant, however, never occurs as such but either becomes -h- or zero or merges with the classifier or stem consonant which follows it.
|First person dual plus:||Chiricahua||Mescalero|
|Classifier -[-||long vowel -[-||long nasal vowel -[-|
|Stem Consonant '-||long vowel -t'-||long nasal vowel -t'-|
|Stem Consonant y-||long vowel -d-||long nasal vowel -d-|
|Stem Consonant gh-||long vowel -g-||long nasal vowel -g-|
|Stem Consonant z-||long vowel -dz-||long nasal vowel -dz-|
|Stem Consonant zh-||long vowel -j-||long nasal vowel j-|
|Stem Consonant l-||long vowel dl-||long nasal vowel dl-|
The 3a person, place, and indefinite subjects are expressed by the deictic prefixes ji- [ch'i- in Mescalero], go-, and 'i-, respectively.
The imperfective paradigm is ordinarily characterized by the absence of a modal prefix. When a verb form includes other prefixes, then, these are united directly with the subject pronoun prefixes to form the conjunct imperfective paradigm. In the table that follows, the vowel referred to stands for the vowel of the preceding prefix.
|Sg. 2||-high vowel-||-high nasal vowel-|
|Du. 1||-long vowel-[d]-||-long nasal vowel-[d]-|
When the verb has no thematic or derivational prefixes, it takes the disjunct
As may be seen from the above table, this paradigm requires a prefix hi- [called the peg element] in all but the second and 3a persons and when the place and indefinite pronouns are used. Note also that the second person singular pronoun is n- in this paradigm. In transitive verbs, a prefixed object pronoun will replace the peg element. Thus, for example, hi-sh-b44zh 'I boil it' [3rd person pronoun is zero], ni-sh- b44zh 'I boil you' [ni- second person object], sh7-[-b44zh 'you boil me' [note that shi-, the first person object, requires the conjunct form of the second person subject], yi-[-b44zh 'he boils him' [yi- third person object].
A third imperfective paradigm is found in verbs with derivational prefixes
which require the disjunct form.
|Sg. 1||-long vowel--sh-||-long vowel-- sh-|
|Sg. 2||-vowel--n-||-long vowel--n-|
|Sg. 3||-long vowel-||-long vowel-|
|Du. 1||-long vowel--[d]-||-long nasal vowel--[d]-|
|-vowel-hii[d]-||-nasal vowel- h88[d]-|
Neuter verbs denoting states or qualities undefined as to time are conjugated in the imperfective paradigm. Examples: [i- ni-...-gai 'to be white', [i-ni-...ch7 'to be red', [i- ni-...k'aa 'to be fat', ni-...-ndeez 'to be long, tall', '1-ni-...t'4 'to be thus, so'.
The imperfective mode of the active voice also takes the imperfective paradigm. This mode denotes activities in the process or activities about to fulfill themselves. Examples: k'idasah'aa 'you two tie a fabric on him' [k'i- 'on', das- > dah- 'top', ah- second person dual, -'aa 'to handle a fabric', imperf. stem], n]'aa 'put the round object down' [n- 'down', ]- > ni- completive plus second person singular pronoun,-'aa 'to handle a round object', imperf. stem], sha]'aa 'give the round object to me' [sha- > shi- first person object plus aa- 'to', ]- > ni- completive plus second person subject].
There are three perfective paradigms, the si- perfective, the hi- perfective, and the ni- perfective. Zero and -[- class verbs employ a distinctive set of subject pronouns in the perfective mode [see number 12] but -d- and -l- class verbs use the same pronouns as in the other modes.
The si- perfective paradigm is as follows:
|Person||Zero or -[- class||-d- and -l- class|
|Sg. 3a||jiis- [Mesc. ch'iis-]||jiis- [Mesc. ch'iis-]|
|Du. 1||sii[d] --||sii[d]-|
|s88[d]- [Mesc.]||s88[d]- [Mesc.]|
In the 3a person and when the place and indefinite pronouns are used, the perfective prefix si- loses its vowel causing the vowel of the preceding element to lengthen compensatively. The same thing occurs in the third persons of transitive verbs: yi- third person object plus si- > yiis-. There are numerous other instances where prefixes combine with the si- perfective prefix to produce irregularities in form. These will be explained in the notes in the texts.
The hi- perfective paradigm:
|Sg. 2||h0n-||h0n-||h0n-||h0n --|
|Du. 1||hoo[d]-||hoo[d]-||h -- [d]-||h -- [d]-|
As may be seen in the case of the 3a person and in the place and indefinite pronouns, the initial h- of this prefix is lost when it is preceded by another prefix, I cannot explain the variant form haa- in the third persons of the - d- and -l- verbs. Other variant forms also occur but these will be treated in the notes to the texts.
The ni- perfective paradigm:
|high vowel||high nasal vowel|
The above is the regular form of the ni- perfective paradigm. There are, however, numerous variant forms depending upon the nature of the preceding prefix. These will be explained as they occur in the notes to the texts.
The perfective paradigms, like those for the imperfective, serve two functions: to form neuter verbs and to form the perfective mode of active and passive verbs. The imperfective neuters, it will be remembered, defined states or qualities without reference to time or preceding action. Perfective neuters, however, define states or qualities which have resulted from preceding action. The si- perfective is used when a durative static notion is implied. Thus: si'3 'a round object lies, has position' [- '3 'a round object moves'], sid1 'he is sitting, is seated' [-d1 'one person sits'], siz9 'he is standing' [-z9 'to stand']. The hi- perfective is employed when an inceptive static notion is implied: dits8- '00-'1- 7 'a standing tree' [iits8 'tree', '00- > 'i- indefinite subject plus hi- perfective, -'1 'a rigid object has extension', -7 relative], zaa-ho0- '1-7 'bit [of a bridle]' [zaa- 'mouth', ho0- > ha- 'out' plus perfective prefix]. Finally, the ni- perfective is used when a completive static notion is to be expressed: naa-']-'1 'bridge' [naa- 'across', ']- > 'i- indefinite subject plus ni- perfective, -'1 'a rigid object has extension], g0]-'1 'an arroyo' [g0]- is the ni- perfective, place subject; -'1 'a rigid object has extension']
The perfective mode of the active and passive verb distinguish an action that has become complete. The form of the perfective paradigm is determined by the meaning of the derivational prefixes and the theme. Thus, naa-s7-y1, 'I have moved about' [naa- 'about', -y1 'one person moves'] may be contrasted with ha-00-y1 'I have come out [e. g., of a hole]' [ha- 'out'] and n-n7-y1 'I have arrived, I have stopped moving I [ni- 'to an end'].
The progressive paradigm is formed by a prefix ho-. The subject pronouns
are the same as those of the conjunct imperfective paradigm.
|Du. 1||hoo[d]-||h -- [d]-|
The progressive paradigm functions primarily in the progressive mode of active and passive. Here it signifies action carried on while going along. Examples: hosh'11[ 'I am carrying a round object' ['11[, progressive stem 'to handle a round object], hogho[ 'I am running' [- gho[,prog. stem 'to run'], hozha 'he is hunting' [-zha, prog. stem 'to hunt'].
The future paradigm is based upon the progressive. It is apparently formed by
adding a prefix di- to the progressive forms. The resulting combinations,
however, are irregular and cannot be explained in terms of the present day
|Du. 1||doo[d]-||d -- [d]-|
The future is the only obligatory tense form in Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache. All other tense variations are expressed periphrastically by means of enclitics [see number 20].
The iterative paradigm is formed by prefixing ni- to the conjunct form of
|Du. 1||n1a[d]-, n1hii[d]-||n1h88[d]-|
Note that the iterative prefix precedes the deictic prefixes. Other modal elements follow the deictic prefixes [see number 9].
The iterative paradigm is used only in the iterative mode of active and passive verbs. This mode denotes repeated activity. Where there is a distinct stem form for the iterative mode, it is possible to form another mode, the usitative, by combining the prefix complex of the imperfective with the stem of the iterative. This mode denotes habitual, usual or customary activity.
The optative paradigm is formed by prefixing an element ho- to the subject
pronouns of the conjunct form of the imperfective.
|Du. 1||hoo[d]-||h -- [d]-|
This paradigm is employed in forming the optative mode of active and passive verbs. Examples: nook1 'would that we go', h2hook1 'would that we go quickly', god0ya' 'would that it begin'.
The particle exhibits a variety of forms, from the monosyllabic structure
characteristic of some numerals to the polysyllabic constructions of the
adverbs. Particles may not be inflected or otherwise altered in structure. They
function as numerals, introductory particles, connectives, adverbs, and
adjectives. Examples: d1[ee'4 'one', naaki
'two', t1 'three, d99'- 'four', '1koo
'and, then', '1]deeda 'and so, just then',
n1go 'then and', 'ilk'id3 'long ago', h2h
'hurry, in a hurry', ndah 'but', d11
Proclitics and enclitics are bound forms which may be added to words of any form class. The commoner proclitics are as follows: d11- 'just, only, alone', doo-, always used with the enclitic -da to express the negative, d1s7- , an intensifier, 'very much, exceedingly'.
Enclitics are more numerous and may be divided into three groups: postpositional enclitics, relative enclitics, and tense-modal enclitics. Examples: -ee 'at, in, on', -sh9 'from', - 7 relative enclitic referring to things, actions and collectivities, -] relative enclitic referring to persons, -ne 'people of ... group' , -n past tense, - go subordinating enclitic, -n1'a narrative enclitic.