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Guidelines for SGML Text Mark-up at the Electronic Text Center
David Seaman, Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia
  • <cit> </cit> : The citation. This opening <cit> must immediately follow the opening <epigraph> tag and the <cit> must be closed immediately before the <epigraph> is closed.

  • <bibl> </bibl> : The bibliographic reference. This pair of tags must open and close around the title of the text and or the author of the text from which the epigraph comes. If there is no bibliographic reference, the pair must still be used, they will simply be empty as in the second example below.


The following, from James Branch Cabell's The Certain Hour, are two examples of how to tag an epigraph :

  • <epigraph><cit><p> <hi rend="italics">"Les Dieux, qui trop aiment ses faceties cruelles"</hi></p> <bibl>PAUL VERVILLE.</bibl></cit></epigraph>

  • <epigraph><cit><q> "These questions, so long as they remain with the Muses, may very well be unaccompanied with severity, for where there is no other end of contemplation and inquiry but that of pastime alone, the understanding is not oppressed; but after the Muses have given over their riddles to Sphinx,--that is, to practise, which urges and impels to action, choice and determination, --then it is that they become torturing, severe and trying."</q><bibl></bibl></cit></epigraph>

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